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Infidels, Freethinkers, Humanists, and Unbelievers
Hemingway, Earnest Miller (1899 - 1961)
"All thinking men are atheists."

"I was always embarrassed by the words sacred, glorious, and sacrifice.... I had seen nothing sacred, and the things that were glorious had no glory and the sacrifices were like the stockyards at Chicago if nothing was done with the meat except bury it. There were many words that you could not stand to hear and finally only the names of places had dignity."

-- Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Hemingway was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist. His distinctive writing style is characterized by terse minimalism and understatement and had a significant influence on the development of twentieth century fiction. Hemingway's protagonists are typically stoics, often seen as projections of his own character--men who must show "grace under pressure." Many of his works are now considered classics in the canon of American literature.

Hemingway was part of the 1920s expatriate community in Paris, known as "The Lost Generation," a name coined and popularized by Gertrude Stein. He led a turbulent social life, was married four times, and allegedly had various romantic relationships during his lifetime. Hemingway received the Pulitzer Prize (1953) and Nobel Prize in Literature (1954) for The Old Man and the Sea. He committed suicide at age sixty-one in 1961.

Early life and writing experience
Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. Hemingway's physician father, Clarence Edmonds, attended to the birth of Ernest and subsequently blew a horn on his front porch; announcing to the neighbors that his wife had borne a baby boy. The Hemingways lived in a six-bedroom Victorian house built by Ernest's widowed grandfather, Ernest Hall, an English immigrant and Civil War veteran who lived with the family and is also Hemingway's namesake.

Hemingway was the firstborn son and the second of six children to Clarence ("Doctor Ed") and Grace Hall Hemingway. His mother was a homemaker with considerable singing talent who had once aspired to an opera career and earned money giving voice and music lessons. She was domineering and narrowly religious, mirroring the strict Protestant ethic of Oak Park, which Hemingway later said had "wide lawns and narrow minds". His mother had wanted to bear twins, and when this did not happen, she dressed young Ernest and his sister Marcelline (eighteen months his senior) in similar clothes and with similar hairstyles, maintaining the pretense of the two children being "twins." Grace Hemingway further feminized her son in his youth by calling him "Ernestine" (while much is made of this by biographers--especially Kenneth S. Lynn--it should be noted that middle-class Victorian boys were often treated in this manner).

While his mother hoped that her son would develop an interest in music, Hemingway adopted his father's outdoorsy interests of hunting and fishing in the woods and lakes of northern Michigan. The family owned a house called Windemere on Michigan's Walloon Lake, and would often spend summers vacationing there. These early experiences in close contact with nature would instill in Hemingway a lifelong passion for outdoor adventure and for living in areas of the world generally considered remote or isolated.

Hemingway attended Oak Park and River Forest High School where he excelled both academically and athletically. Hemingway boxed and played football, and displayed particular talent in English classes. His first writing experience was serving as editor for both Trapeze and Tabula, the school's newspaper and literary magazine, respectively.

When Hemingway graduated from high school, he did not pursue a college education. Instead, at age seventeen, he began his writing career as a cub reporter for The Kansas City Star (1916). Although he worked at the newspaper for only six months, throughout his lifetime he used the guidance from the Star's style guide as a foundation for his writing style: "Use short sentences. Use short first paragraphs. Use vigorous English. Be positive, not negative."

World War I until the Spanish Civil War
Hemingway left his reporting job after only a few months, and, against his father's wishes, tried to join the United States Army to see action in World War I. He supposedly failed the medical examination due to poor vision (there is no record of this), and instead joined the American Field Service Ambulance Corps and left for Italy. En route to the Italian front, he stopped in Paris, which was under constant bombardment from German artillery. Instead of staying in the relative safety of the Hotel Florida, Hemingway tried to get as close to combat as possible.

Soon after arriving on the Italian front, he witnessed the brutalities of the war; on his first day of duty, an ammunition factory near Milan suffered an explosion. Hemingway had to pick up the human remains, mostly of women who had worked at the factory. This first, extremely cruel encounter with death left him shaken. The soldiers he met later did not lighten the horror; for example, one of them, Eric Dorman-Smith, quoted to him a line from Part Two of Shakespeare's Henry IV: "By my troth, I care not; a man can die but once; we owe God a death...and let it go which way it will, he that dies this year is quit for the next." (Hemingway, for his part, would conjure this very same Shakespearean line in The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber, one of his famous African short stories.) In another instance, a 50-year-old soldier, to whom Hemingway said, "You're troppo vecchio for this war, pop," replied, "I can die as well as any man."

At the Italian front on 8 July 1918, Hemingway was wounded delivering supplies to soldiers, ending his career as an ambulance driver. The exact details of the attack are in dispute, but two facts are certain: Hemingway was hit by an Austria trench mortar shell that left fragments in both of his legs, and he was subsequently awarded the Silver Medal of Military Valor (medaglia d'argento) from the Italian government.

After this experience, Hemingway convalesced in a Milan hospital run by the American Red Cross. At the hospital there was very little to do for entertainment. Hemingway would often drink heavily and read newspapers to pass the time. It was here that he met Sister Agnes von Kurowsky of Washington, D.C., one of eighteen nurses attending groups of four patients each. Hemingway fell in love with Sister Agnes, who was more than six years older than him, but their relationship did not last. After he returned to the United States, she fell in love with and married another man. These events provided inspiration and were fictionalized in one of Hemingway's early novels, A Farewell to Arms.

Literary aftermath of WWI

First novels and other early works
Gertrude Stein was a long-time mentor of Hemingway and served as an important influence on his style and literary development.After the war, Hemingway returned to Oak Park. Driven in part from the United States due to prohibition, in 1920 he took a job in Toronto, Ontario at the Toronto Star. He worked there as a freelancer, staff writer, and foreign correspondent. It was in Toronto that Hemingway befriended fellow Star reporter Morley Callaghan. Callaghan had begun writing short stories at this time and showed them to Hemingway, who praised it as fine work. Callaghan and Hemingway would later reunite in Paris.

In 1921, Hemingway married his first wife, Hadley Richardson. The Hemingways decided to live abroad for a time. At the advice of Sherwood Anderson, they settled in Paris, where Hemingway covered the Greco-Turkish War for the Star. After Hemingway's return to Paris, Anderson gave him a letter of introduction to Gertrude Stein. She became his mentor and introduced him to the "Parisian Modern Movement" then ongoing in Montparnasse Quarter; this was the beginnings of the American expatriate circle that became known as the Lost Generation, a term coined by Stein.

Hemingway's other influential mentor was Ezra Pound, the founder of imagism. Hemingway later said in reminiscence of this eclectic group, "Ezra was right half the time, and when he was wrong, he was so wrong you were never in any doubt about it. Gertrude was always right." The group often frequented Sylvia Beach's bookshop, Shakespeare & Co., at 12 Rue de l'Odéon. After the 1922 publication and American banning of colleague James Joyce's Ulysses,
Hemingway used Toronto-based friends to smuggle copies of the novel into the United States. Hemingway's own first book, called Three Stories and Ten Poems (1923), was published in Paris by Robert McAlmon. In the same year, during a brief return to Toronto, Hemingway's first son was born. Hemingway asked Gertrude Stein to be little John's godmother. Busy supporting a family, he became bored with the Toronto Star and resigned on January 1, 1924.

Hemingway's American literary debut came with the publication of the short story collection In Our Time (1925). The vignettes that now constitute the interchapters of the American version were initially published in Europe as In Our Time (1924). This work was important for Hemingway, reaffirming to him that his minimalist style could be accepted by the literary community. "Big Two-Hearted River" is the collection's best-known story.

In April of 1925, two weeks after the publication of The Great Gatsby, Hemingway met F. Scott Fitzgerald at the Dingo Bar. Fitzgerald and Hemingway were at first close friends, often drinking and talking together. They frequently exchanged manuscripts, and Fitzgerald did much to advance Hemingway's career and the publication of his first collections of stories, although the relationship later cooled and became more competitive.

Fitzgerald's wife Zelda, however, disliked Hemingway from the start. Openly describing him as "bogus" and "phoney as a rubber cheque" and asserting that his macho persona was a facade; she became irrationally convinced that Hemingway was homosexual and accused Scott Fitzgerald of having an affair with him.

These relationships and long nights of excessive drinking provided inspiration for Hemingway's first successful novel, The Sun Also Rises (1926). It took him only six weeks to finish at his favorite restaurant in Montparnasse, La Closerie des Lilas. The novel, semi-autobiographical in that it follows a group of expatriate Americans in Europe, was successful and was met with critical acclaim. While Hemingway had initially claimed that the novel was an obsolete form of literature, he was apparently inspired to write one after reading Fitzgerald's manuscript for The Great Gatsby.

Hemingway divorced Hadley Richardson and married Pauline Pfeiffer, a devout Roman Catholic from Piggott, Arkansas, in 1927. Hemingway converted to Catholicism himself at this time. That year saw the publication of Men Without Women, a collection of short stories, containing "The Killers", one of Hemingway's best-known and most-anthologized stories.

It was here that he wrote The Sun Also Rises.In 1928, Hemingway's father, Clarence, troubled with diabetes and financial instabilities, committed suicide using an old Civil War pistol. This suicide caused great hurt for Hemingway; he immediately traveled to Oak Park to arrange the funeral and caused controversy by vocalizing the Catholic idea that suicides go to Hell. At about the same time, Harry Crosby, founder of the Black Sun Press and friend of Hemingway from his days in Paris, also committed suicide.

In 1928 Hemingway's second son, Patrick, was born in Kansas City (his third son, Gregory, would be born to the couple a few years later). It was a Caesarean birth after difficult labor, details that were incorporated into the concluding scene of his novel A Farewell to Arms, the last important work associated with the period closely following World War I. It details the romance between Frederic Henry, an American soldier, and Catherine Barkley, a British nurse.

The novel is heavily autobiographical in nature: the plot is directly inspired by his experience with Sister von Kurowsky in Milan; the intense labor pains of his second wife, Pauline, in the birth of Hemingway's son Patrick inspired Catherine's labor in the novel; the real-life Kitty Cannell inspired the fictional Helen Ferguson; the priest was based on Don Giuseppe Bianchi, the priest of the 69th and 70th regiments of the Brigata Ancona. While the inspiration of the character Rinaldi is mysterious, curiously, he had already appeared in In Our Time.

A Farewell to Arms was published at a time when many other World War I books were prominent, including Frederic Manning's Her Privates We, Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front, Richard Aldington's Death of a Hero, and Robert Graves' Goodbye to All That. A Farewell to Arms's success rendered Hemingway essentially independent financially.

The (First) Forty Nine Stories
Several of Hemingway's most famous short stories were written in the period following the war; in 1938—along with his only full-length play, entitled The Fifth Column—49 such stories were published in the collection The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories. Hemingway's intention was, as he openly stated in his own foreword to the collection, to write more. Many of the stories that make up this collection can be found in other abridged collections, including In Our Time, Men Without Women, Winner Take Nothing, and The Snows of Kilimanjaro.

Some of the collection's important stories include: Old Man at the Bridge, On The Quai at Smyrna, Hills Like White Elephants, One Reader Writes, The Killers and (perhaps most famously) A Clean, Well-Lighted Place. While these stories are rather short, the book also includes much longer stories. Among these the most famous are The Snows of Kilimanjaro and The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber.

Only one other story collection by Hemingway appeared during his lifetime, entitled Four Stories Of The Spanish Civil War; "The Denunciation" is the most notable story therein. The Nick Adams Stories appeared posthumously in 1972. What is now considered the definitive compilation of all of Hemingway's short stories is published as The Complete Short Stories Of Ernest Hemingway, first compiled and published in 1987.

Early critical interplay
Hemingway's early works sold well and were generally received favorably by critics. This success elicited some crude and pretentious behavior from Hemingway, even in these formative years of his career. For example, he began to tell F. Scott Fitzgerald how to write; he also claimed that the English novelist Ford Madox Ford was sexually impotent. Hemingway in turn was the subject of much criticism. The journal Bookman attacked him as a dirty writer.

According to Fitzgerald, McAlmon, the publisher of his first non-commercial book, labeled Hemingway "a fag and a wife-beater" and claimed that Pauline was a lesbian (she is alleged to have had lesbian affairs after their divorce). Gertrude Stein criticized him in her book The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, suggesting that he had derived his prose style from her own and from Sherwood Anderson's.

Max Eastman disparaged Hemingway harshly, asking him to "come out from behind that false hair on the chest" (these accusations led to a physical confrontation between the two). Eastman would go on to write an essay entitled Bull in the Afternoon, a satire of Hemingway's Death in the Afternoon. Another facet of Eastman's criticism consisted in the suggestion that Hemingway ought to give up his lonely, tight-lipped stoicism and write about contemporary social affairs. Hemingway did so for at least a short time; his article Who Murdered the Vets? for New Masses, a leftist magazine, and To Have and Have Not displayed a certain heightened social awareness.

Key West influence

Living in Key West
Following the advice of John Dos Passos, Hemingway moved to Key West, Florida where he established his first American home. From his old stone house—a wedding present from Pauline's uncle—Hemingway fished in the Dry Tortugas waters with his longtime friend Waldo Peirce, went to the famous bar Sloppy Joe's, and traveled occasionally to Spain, gathering material for Death in the Afternoon and Winner Take Nothing.

Death in the Afternoon, a book about bullfighting, was published in 1932. Hemingway had become a bullfighting aficionado after seeing the Pamplona fiesta of 1925, fictionalized in The Sun Also Rises. In Death in the Afternoon, Hemingway extensively discussed the metaphysics of bullfighting: the ritualized, almost religious practice. In his writings on Spain he was influenced by the Spanish master Pío Baroja (when Hemingway won the Nobel Prize, he traveled to see Baroja, then on his death bed, specifically to tell him that he thought Baroja deserved the prize more than he did).

A safari in the fall of 1932 led him to Mombasa, Nairobi, and Machakos in the Mua Hills. In Spain reporting on the Spanish Civil War, Hemingway broke friendship with John Dos Passos because Dos Passos kept reporting despite warning on the atrocities, not only of the Fascists who Hemingway disliked, but also of the Republicans who Hemingway favored ("The Breaking Point: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and the Murder of Jose Robles" by Stephen Koch, published 2005 ISBN 1582432805) and The Spanish Civil War (1961) by Hugh Thomas).

In this circumstance Hemingway has been linked to reporter Herbert Matthews. Hemingway also began to question his Catholicism at this time, eventually leaving the church (though friends indicate that he had "funny ties" to Catholicism for the rest of his life). The story "The Denunciation" seems autobiographical, thus suggesting that the author might have been an informant for the Republic as well as weapons instructor (The Spanish Civil War (1961) by Hugh Thomas). 1935 saw the publication of Green Hills of Africa, an account of his African safari. The Snows of Kilimanjaro and The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber were the fictionalized results of his African experiences.

Some health problems characterized this period of Hemingway's life: an anthrax infection, a cut eyeball, a gash in his forehead, grippe, toothache, hemorrhoids; kidney trouble from fishing in Spain, torn groin muscle, finger gashed to the bone in an accident with a punching ball, lacerations (to arms, legs, and face) from a ride on a runaway horse through a deep Wyoming forest, and a broken arm from a car accident.

For Whom the Bell Tolls
Francisco Franco won the Spanish Civil War in the spring of 1939. Hemingway had lost an adopted homeland to Franco's fascist nationalists, and would later lose his beloved Key West, Florida home due to his 1940 divorce. A few weeks after the divorce Hemingway married his companion in Spain, Martha Gellhorn, as his third wife. His novel For Whom The Bell Tolls was published in 1940; the long work, which takes place during the Spanish Civil War, based on real events (The Spanish Civil War Hugh Thomas) tells of an American man named "Robert Jordan" fighting with Spanish guerrillas on the side of the Republicans. It is one of Hemingway's most notable literary accomplishments. The title is taken from the penultimate paragraph of John Donne's Meditation XVII.

World War II and its aftermath
The United States entered World War II on December 8, 1941, and for the first time in his life, Hemingway sought to take part in naval warfare.
Aboard the Pilar, now a Q-Ship, Hemingway's crew was charged with sinking German submarines threatening the shipping off the coasts of Cuba and the United States (Martha Gellhorn always viewed the sub-hunting as an excuse for Hemingway and his friends to get gas and booze for fishing). As the FBI took over Caribbean counter-espionage--J. Edgar Hoover was suspicious of Hemingway from the start, and would become more so later-- Ernest went to Europe as a war correspondent for Collier's magazine.

Hemingway took part in the D-Day invasion of France as a correspondent on a landing craft, coming in on the 9th wave after most of the action was done (he was infuriated by the fact that then-wife Martha had managed to get in earlier). Later, at Villedieu-les-Poêles, France, he allegedly threw three grenades into a cellar where SS officers were hiding--although this story, as always where Hemingway is concerned, needs to be taken with a large grain of salt.

Later, he acted as an unofficial liaison officer at Château de Rambouillet, and afterwards, formed his own partisan group which in his telling took part in the liberation of Paris. (These claims have been mostly debunked by historians; some friends said that the only thing Hemingway liberated was the Ritz bar, but he was without question on the scene.)For more information about Hemingway's involvement in D-Day, and what was effectively a US Army court-martial for carrying and using arms in contravention of the rules governing war correspondents, read Charles Whiting's 'Hemingway Goes To War'.

After the war, Hemingway started work on The Garden of Eden, which was never finished and would be published posthumously in much-abridged form in 1986. At one stage, he planned a major trilogy which was to be comprised of "The Sea When Young", "The Sea When Absent" and "The Sea in Being" (the latter eventually published in 1952 as The Old Man and the Sea). There was also a "Sea-Chase" story; three of these pieces were edited and stuck together as the posthumously-published novel Islands in the Stream (1970).

Newly divorced from Martha, Hemingway married the war correspondent Mary Welsh, whom he'd met overseas in 1944. Hemingway's first novel after For Whom the Bell Tolls was Across the River and Into the Trees (1950), set in post-World War II Venice. He derived the title from the last words of General Stonewall Jackson. Enamored of a young Italian girl (Adriana Ivancich) at the time, Across the River and Into the Trees is a romance between a war-weary Colonel Cantwell (based on British Lieutenant General "Chink" Dorman-Smith [see Journal of Modern Literature, June 1984]) and the young Renata (which means "Reborn" in Latin; obviously based on Adriana).

The novel received largely bad reviews, many of which accused Hemingway of bad taste, stylistic ineptitude, and sentimentality. Perhaps the last charge was the truest, and fit an emerging pattern: Hemingway was growing old. But 'Across the River' has its latter-day defenders nonetheless.

Later years
One section of the above-mentioned sea trilogy was published as The Old Man and the Sea in 1952. That novella's enormous success satisfied and fulfilled Hemingway, probably for the last time in his life. It earned him both the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 and the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954, and restored his international reputation.

Then, his legendary bad luck struck once again; on a safari he suffered injuries in two successive plane crashes. Hemingway's injuries were serious; he sprained his right shoulder, arm, and left leg, had a grave concussion, temporarily lost vision in his left eye (and the hearing in his left ear), had paralysis of the sphincter, a crushed vertebra, ruptured liver, spleen and kidney, and first degree burns on his face, arms, and leg.

As if this were not enough, he was badly injured one month later in a bushfire accident which left him with second degree burns on his legs, front torso, lips, left hand and right forearm. The pain left him in prolonged anguish, and he was unable to travel to Stockholm to accept his Nobel Prize.

A glimmer of hope came with the discovery of some of his old manuscripts from 1928 in the Ritz cellars, which were transformed into A Moveable Feast. Although some of his energy seemed to be restored, severe drinking problems kept him down. His blood pressure and cholesterol count were perilously high, he suffered from aortal inflammation, and his depression, aggravated by the drinking, was worsening.

He also lost his Finca Vigía, his estate outside Havana, Cuba that he had owned for over twenty years, and was forced to go into exile in Ketchum, Idaho, when the conflict in Cuba began to escalate. And so the final chapter began--with Hemingway under surveillance from the US federal government for his residence and activities in Cuba.

On 26 February 1960, Ernest Hemingway was unable to get his bullfighting narrative The Dangerous Summer to the publishers. He therefore had his wife Mary summon his friend, Life Magazine bureau head Will Lang Jr., to leave Paris and come to Spain. Hemingway persuaded Lang to let him print the manuscript, along with a picture layout before it came out in hardcover. Although not a word of it was on paper, Ernest agreed to the proposal. The first part of story appeared in Life Magazine on September 5, 1960. The other installments were printed on the following issues of Life.

Hemingway was upset by the photographs in his The Dangerous Summer article. He was receiving treatment in Ketchum, Idaho for high blood pressure and liver problems—and also electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression and his continued paranoia, although this may in fact have helped to precipitate his suicide, since he reportedly suffered significant memory loss as a result of the shock treatments. He also lost weight and his 6-foot frame appeared gaunt at 170 pounds

Hemingway attempted suicide in the spring of 1961, and received ECT treatment again; but, some three weeks short of his 62nd birthday, he took his own life on the morning of July 2, 1961, with a shotgun blast to the head. Judged not mentally responsible for his action of suicide, he was buried with a Roman Catholic service. Hemingway himself blamed the ECT treatments for "putting him out of business" by destroying his memory; medical and scholarly opinion has been respectfully attentive to this view.

Other members of Hemingway's immediate family also committed suicide, including his father, Clarence Hemingway, his siblings Ursula and Leicester, and later his grandaughter Margaux Hemingway. Some believe that certain members of Hemingway's paternal line had a genetic condition or hereditary disease known as haemochromatosis, in which an excess of iron concentration in the blood causes damage to the pancreas and depression or instability in the cerebrum.

Hemingway's physician father is known to have developed bronze diabetes owing to this condition in the years prior to his suicide at age fifty-nine. Some think Hemingway suffered from bipolar disorder. Throughout his life Hemingway was a heavy drinker and sucumbed to alcoholism in his twilight years. One must allow that there is a surfeit of medical speculation about his final illness and death.

Ernest Hemingway is interred in the Catholic cemetery in Ketchum.

Posthumous publications
Hemingway was still writing new works up to the time of his death in 1961. All of these unfinished works which were Hemingway's sole creation have been published posthumously; they are Islands in the Stream, The Dangerous Summer, and The Garden of Eden. In a note forwarding "Islands in the Stream" Mary Hemingway indicated that she worked with Charles Scribner, Jr. on "preparing this book for publication from Ernest's original manuscript."

In that note she stated that "beyond the routine chores of correcting spelling and punctuation, we made some cuts in the manuscript, I feeling that Ernest would surely have made them himself. The book is all Ernest's. We have added nothing to it." Controversy has surrounded the publication of these works, insofar as it has been suggested that it is not necessarily within the jurisdiction of Hemingway's relatives or publishers to determine whether these works should be made available to the public. For example, scholars often disapprovingly note that the version of The Garden of Eden published by Charles Scribner's Sons in 1986, though in no way a revision of Hemingway's original words, nonetheless does not include some two-thirds of the original manuscript.

In 1999, another novel entitled True at First Light appeared under the name of Ernest Hemingway, though it was heavily edited by his son Patrick Hemingway. Ernest Hemingway was a prolific letter writer, and in 2003 much of these were published by Scribner in Ernest Hemingway Selected Letters 1917-1961. It was met with some controversy as Hemingway himself stated he never wished to publish his letters.

The Associated Press reported in February 2005 on the progress of what is purported to be the final work to be posthumously published that was written by Hemingway. Entitled Under Kilimanjaro, the novel is a fictional account of Hemingway's final African safari in 1953–1954. He spent several months in Kenya with his fourth wife, Mary, before his near-fatal plane crashes took place.

Anticipation of the novel, whose manuscript was completed in 1956, adumbrates perhaps an unprecedentedly large critical battle over whether it is proper to publish the work (many sources mention that a new, light side of Hemingway will be seen as opposed to his canonical, macho image), even as editors Robert W. Lewis of University of North Dakota and Robert E. Fleming of University of New Mexico have pushed it through to publication; the novel was published on September 15 2005.

Also published after Hemingway's death were several collections of his work as a journalist. These collections contain his columns and articles for Esquire Magazine, The North American Newspaper Alliance, and the Toronto Star; they include Byline: Ernest Hemingway edited by William White, and Hemingway: The Wild Years edited by Gene Z. Hanrahan.

Influence and legacy
The influence of Hemingway's writings on American literature was considerable and continues today. Indeed, the influence of Hemingway's style was so widespread that it may be glimpsed in most contemporary fiction, as writers draw inspiration either from Hemingway himself or indirectly through writers who more consciously emulated Hemingway's style. In his own time, Hemingway affected writers within his modernist literary circle. James Joyce called "A Clean, Well Lighted Place" "one of the best stories ever written". Pulp fiction and "hard boiled" crime fiction (which flourished from the 1920s to the 1950s) often owed a strong debt to Hemingway.

Hemingway's terse prose style--"Nick stood up. He was all right"-- is known to have inspired Bret Easton Ellis, Chuck Palahniuk, Douglas Coupland and many Generation X writers. Hemingway's style also influenced Jack Kerouac and other Beat Generation writers. J.D. Salinger is said to have wanted to be a great American short story writer in the same vein as Hemingway. Hunter S. Thompson often compared himself to Hemingway, and terse Hemingway-esque sentences can be found in The Rum Diary.

In Latin American literature, Hemingway's impact can perhaps best be seen in the work of Gabriel García Márquez, who, for instance, often uses the sea as a central image in his fiction.

Science fiction novelist Joe Haldeman won the Hugo Award and the Nebula Award for his novella, The Hemingway Hoax, a story which explored the effect that Hemingway's lost stories might have had upon twentieth century history.

The famous heavy-metal band, Metallica were inspired by 'For Whom The Bell Tolls' and penned the eponymous song that went on to become a major hit.

In 1999, Michael Palin retraced the footsteps of Hemingway, in Michael Palin's Hemingway Adventure, a television documentary, one hundred years after his birth of his favorite writer. The journey took him through many sites including Chicago, Paris, Italy, Africa, Key West, Cuba, and Idaho. The book is available at his website.

Since 1987, actor-writer Ed Metzger has portrayed the life of Ernest Hemingway in one-man stage show Hemingway: On The Edge, featuring stories and anecdotes from Hemingway's own life and adventures. Metzger quotes Hemingway, "My father told me never kill anything you're not going to eat. At the age of 9, I shot a porcupine. It was the toughest lesson I ever had." More information about the show is available at website

At this writing, only one of Hemingway's sons (Patrick) survives.

In Harry Turtledove's Alternate History Timeline-191, Hemingway shows up as a character who drove ambulances on the US-Canadian Front in Quebec during the Great War. The character had part of his reproductive organs shot off in the war, giving him severe depression and suicidal tendencies.

In Dave Sim's graphic novel Cerebus, the story arc "Form and Void" features Ham and Mary Ernestway, parodies of Hemingway and his wife Mary. The last few years of Hemingway's life, including his electroshock therapy, the safari in which he was badly injured, and his suicide, are used as plot points for the story.

Awards and honors
During his lifetime Hemingway was awarded with:

1. Silver Medal of Military Valor (medaglia d'argento) in World War I
2. Bronze Star (War Correspondent-Military Irregular in World War II) in 1947
3. Pulitzer Prize in 1953 (for The Old Man and the Sea)
4. Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954 (The Old Man and the Sea cited as a reason for the award)

1. Sailors were long-known to especially value polydactyl cats (which have extra toes as a genetic trait) for their extraordinary climbing and hunting abilities as an aid in controlling shipboard rodents. Some sailors also considered them to be extremely good luck when at sea. Hemingway was one of the more famous lovers of polydactyl cats. He was first given a six-toed cat by a ship's captain. As provided in his will, his former home in Key West, Florida (which is now a popular museum) currently houses approximately sixty descendents of his cats, approximately 50% of whom are polydactyl. The house and its feline residents make a brief appearance in the 1989 James Bond film Licence to Kill.
2. According to various biographical sources, Hemingway was six feet tall and weighed anywhere between 170 and 260 pounds at varying times in his life. His build was muscular, though he became paunchy in his middle years. He had dark brown hair, brown eyes, and habitually wore a moustache (with an occasional beard) from the age of twenty three on. By age fifty, he consistently wore a graying beard. He had a scar on his forehead, the result of a drunken accident in Paris in his late 20s (thinking he was flushing a toilet, he accidentally pulled a skylight down on his head). He suffered from myopia all his life, but vanity prevented him from being fitted with glasses until he was thirty two (and very rarely was he photographed wearing them). He was fond of tennis, fonder of fishing and hunting, and hated New York City.

The information on which this page is based has been drawn from research on the Internet. For example, much use has been made of, to whom we are greatly indebted. Since the information recording process at Wikipedia is prone to changes in the data, please check at Wikipedia for current information. If you find something on this page to be in error, please contact us.
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