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Mill, John Stuart (1806-1873)

"God is a word to express, not our ideas, but the want of them."

"The principle itself of dogmatic religion, dogmatic morality, dogmatic philosophy, is what requires to be booted out; not any particular manifestation of that principle."

"The world would be astonished if it new how great a proportion of its brightest ornaments, of those most distinguished even in popular estimation for wisdom and virtue, are complete skeptics in religion."

-- John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, an English philosopher and political economist, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. He was an advocate of utilitarianism, the ethical theory first proposed by his godfather Jeremy Bentham.

John Stuart Mill was born in Pentonville, London, the oldest son of the Scottish philosopher and historian James Mill. John Stuart was educated by his father, with the advice and assistance of Jeremy Bentham and Francis Place. He was given an extremely rigorous upbringing, and was deliberately shielded from association with children his own age other than his siblings. His father, a follower of Bentham and an adherent of associationism, had as his explicit aim to create a genius intellect that would carry on the cause of utilitarianism and its implementation after he and Bentham were dead.

His feats as a child were exceptional; at the age of three he was taught the Greek alphabet and long lists of Greek words with their English equivalents. By the age of eight he had read Aesop's Fables, Xenophon's Anabasis, and the whole of Herodotus, and was acquainted with Lucian, Diogenes Laërtius, Isocrates and six dialogues of Plato (see his Autobiography). He had also read a great deal of history in English and had been taught arithmetic.

A contemporary record of Mill's studies from eight to thirteen is published in Bain's sketch of his life. It suggests that his autobiography rather understates the amount of work done. At the age of eight he began learning Latin, Euclid, and algebra, and was appointed schoolmaster to the younger children of the family. His main reading was still history, but he went through all the Latin and Greek authors commonly read in the schools and universities at the time.

He was not taught to compose either in Latin or in Greek, and he was never an exact scholar; it was for the subject matter that he was required to read, and by the age of ten he could read Plato and Demosthenes with ease. His father's History of India was published in 1818; immediately thereafter, about the age of twelve, John began a thorough study of the scholastic logic, at the same time reading Aristotle's logical treatises in the original language. In the following year he was introduced to political economy and studied Adam Smith and David Ricardo with his father--ultimately completing their classical economic view of factors of production.

In 1823 he co-founded the Westminster Review with Jeremy Bentham as a journal for philosophical radicals.

This intensive study however had injurious effects on Mill's mental health, and state of mind. At the age of 21 he suffered a nervous breakdown; as explained in chapter V of his Autobiography, this was caused by the great physical and mental arduousness of his studies which had suppressed any feelings or spirituality he might have developed normally in childhood. Nevertheless, this depression eventually began to dissipate, as he began to find solace in the poetry of William Wordsworth. His capacity for emotion resurfaced, Mill remarking that the "cloud gradually drew off".

Mill was offered a place to study at Cambridge University, but instead followed his father to work for the British East India Company, and after the company was dissolved he was elected for a brief period as an independent member of Parliament, representing the City and Westminster constituency from 1865 to 1868. During his time as an MP Mill advocated easing the burdens on Ireland, and became the first person in parliament to call for women to be given the right to vote. In Considerations on Representative Government Mill called for various reforms of Parliament and voting, especially proportional representation, the Single Transferable Vote, and the extension of suffrage. He was godfather to Bertrand Russell.

In 1851 Mill married Harriet Taylor after 21 years of an at times intense friendship and love affair. Taylor was a significant influence on Mill's work and ideas during both friendship and marriage. His relationship with Harriet Taylor reinforced Mill's advocacy of women's rights. He cites her influence in his final revision of On Liberty, which she died before being able to edit to completion, and appears to be obliquely cited in the text of The Subjection of Women.

He died in Avignon, France in 1873, and is buried alongside his wife.

One foundational book on the concept of liberty was On Liberty, about the nature and limits of the power which can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual. One argument that Mill developed further than any previous philosopher was the harm principle, that is, people should be free to engage in whatever behavior they wish as long as it does not harm others.

John Stuart Mill only speaks of negative liberty in On Liberty, a concept formed and named by Isaiah Berlin (1909-1997). Isaiah Berlin suggests that negative liberty is an absence or lack of impediments, obstacles or coercion. This is in contrast with his other idea of positive liberty, a capacity for behavior, and the presence of conditions for freedom, be they material resources, a level of enlightenment, or the opportunity for political participation.

Thus Mill argued that it is Government's role only to remove the barriers, such as laws, to behaviors that do not harm others. Crucially, he felt that offense did not constitute harm, and therefore supported almost total freedom of speech; only in cases where free speech would lead to direct harm did Mill wish to limit it. For example, whipping up an angry mob to go and attack people would not be defended in Mill's system.

Mill argued that free discourse was vital to ensure progress. He argued that we could never be sure if a silenced opinion did not hold some portion of the truth. Ingeniously he also argued that even false opinions have worth, in that in refuting false opinions the holders of true opinions have their beliefs reaffirmed. Without having to defend one's beliefs, Mill argued, the beliefs would become dead and we would forget why we held them at all. He claimed this had happened to Christianity.

Another important work of Mill's was Utilitarianism, which argues for the philosophy of Utilitarianism. This philosophy was primarily formed by Jeremy Bentham, but Mill's father James Mill was also a proponent. Utilitarianism holds that actions are good in proportion to the amount of happiness produced and number of people happiness is produced in. Mill's main contribution to utilitarianism is the idea of a hierarchy of pleasures. Bentham had treated all forms of happiness as equal, whereas Mill argued that intellectual and moral pleasures and developments were superior to more physical forms of pleasure.

Many have pointed out that the doctrine of the absolute right to liberty outlined in On Liberty and the absolute pragmatism of Utilitarianism are difficult to reconcile. Under strict Utilitarianism for example, freedom of speech ought to be violated if more happiness can be generated that way. Most attempts to unify these two aspects of Mill's thought have relied on Rule Utilitarianism, as that seems to be what Mill had in mind when writing On Liberty.

Mill's main economic philosophy was one of laissez faire, but he accepted interventions in the economy, such as a tax on alcohol, if there were sufficient utilitarian grounds. He also accepted the principle of legislative intervention for the purpose of animal welfare.

Mill's magnum opus was his A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, which went through several revisions and editions. William Whewell's History of the Inductive Sciences (1837) was a chief influence. The reputation of this work is largely due to his analysis of inductive proof, in contrast to Aristotle's syllogisms, which are deductive.

Mill describes the five basic principles of induction which have come to be known as Mill's Methods - the method of agreement, the method of difference, the joint or double method of agreement and difference, the method of residues, and that of concomitant variations. The common feature of these methods, the one real method of scientific inquiry, is that of elimination. All the other methods are thus subordinate to the method of difference. It was also Mill's attempt to postulate a theory of knowledge, in the same vein as John Locke.

Mill is also famous for being one of the earliest and strongest male supporters of women's liberation. His book The Subjection of Women is one of the earliest written on this subject by a male author. He felt that the oppression of women was one of the few remaining relics from ancient times, one which impeded the progress of humanity. This was an issue he actively supported throughout his life, writing many newspaper articles and delivering many speeches on it.

Many cadets at the U.S Air Force Academy best remember him for the following quotation, which is required memorization for all fourthclassmen. "War is an ugly thing, but not the ugliest of things. The decayed and degraded state of moral and patriotic feeling which thinks that nothing is worth war is much worse. The person who has nothing for which he is willing to fight, nothing which is more important than his own personal safety, is a miserable creature and has no chance of being free unless made and kept so by the exertions of better men than himself."

He was also the first to use the term dystopia.


(1843) A System of Logic
(1844) Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy
(1848) Principles of Political Economy
(1859) On Liberty
(1861) Utilitarianism
(1861) Considerations on Representative Government
(1865) Examinations of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy
(1865) Auguste Compte and Positivism
(1869) The Subjection of Women
(1873) Autobiography
(1874) Three Essays on Religion

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