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Infidels, Freethinkers, Humanists, and Unbelievers
Roy, Manabendra Nath (1887 - 1954)
Manabendra Nath Roy was an outstanding international personality of the modern age. Roy was born as Narendranath Bhattacharya. He had a leading role in revolutionary movements in India, Mexico, the Middle East, the Soviet Union, Indonesia and China. Like Marx he was both and activist and a phisopher; in fact Lenin called him "the Oriental Marx".

Roy tried to organize an armed insurrection in India in 1915; founded the Communist Party of Mexico (1919) and the emigre Communist Party of India in Tashkent (1920); rose to occupy the highest offices of the Communist International and led the Commintern's delegation to China (1927). At the same time he authored such Marxist classics as India in Transition (1922), The Future of Indian Politics (1926) and Revolution and Counter-revolution in China (1930); and founded the organ of the emigre Communist Party of India, The Vanguard (and later The Masses) and edited it for seven years (1922-28).

Roy broke with the Communist International in 1929 having publicly opposed the extreme left sectarian policy adopted at its Sixth Congress. Returning to India he spent six years in various prisons during which he wrote a 3000-page draft manuscript provisionally titled "The Philosophocal Consequence of Modern Science". On his release he campaigned against every variety of authoritarianism, supported the anti-fascist war, drew up a Draft Constitution for free India and the outlines of a decentralist people's plan for economic development.

Disillusioned with both bourgeois democracy and communism, he devoted the last years of his life to the formulation of an alternative philosophy which he called Radical Humanism and of which he wrote a detailed exposition in Reason, Romanticism and Revolution.

 
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