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Infidels, Freethinkers, Humanists, and Unbelievers
Buber, Martin (1878-1965)

"Since the primary motive of the evil is disguise, one of the places evil people are most likely to be found is within the church. What better way to conceal one's evil from oneself, as well as from others, than to be a deacon or some other highly visible form of Christian within our culture? ... I do not mean to imply that the evil are anything other than a small minority among the religious or that the religious motives of most people are in any way spurious. I mean only that evil people tend to gravitate toward piety for the disguise and concealment it can offer them."

-- Martin Buber


Martin Buber was an Austrian-Jewish philosopher, translator, and educator, whose work centered around theistic ideals of religious consciousness, interpersonal relations, and community. Buber's evocative, sometimes poetic writing style have marked the major themes in his work: the retelling of Hasidic tales, Biblical commentary, and metaphysical dialogue. A cultural Zionist, Buber was active in the Jewish and educational communities of Germany and Israel. His influence extends across the humanities, particularly in the fields of social psychology, social philosophy, and religious existentialism.

Life and work
Martin (Hebrew name: Mordechai) Buber was born on February 8, 1878 in Vienna into a Jewish family. His grandfather, Solomon Buber, in whose house in Lemberg (L'viv, now Ukraine) Buber spent much of his childhood, worked as a renowned scholar in the field of Jewish tradition and literature. Buber had a multilingual education: the household spoke Yiddish and German, he picked up Hebrew and French in his childhood, and Polish at secondary school.

In 1892, Buber returned to his father's house in Lemberg. A personal religious crisis led him to break with Jewish religious customs: he started reading Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, and Friedrich Nietzsche. The later two, in particular, inspired him to pursue studies in philosophy. In 1896, Buber went to study in Vienna (philosophy, art history, German studies, philology). In 1898, he joined the Zionist movement, participating in congresses and organizational work. In 1899, while studying in Zürich, Buber met Paula Winkler (a non-Jewish Zionist writer who later converted to Judaism) from Munich, his future wife.

Approaching Zionism from his own personal viewpoint, Buber disagreed with Theodor Herzl about the political and cultural direction of Zionism. Herzl envisioned the goal of Zionism in a nation-state, but did not consider Jewish culture or religion necessary. In contrast, Buber believed the potential of Zionism was for social and spiritual enrichment. Herzl and Buber would continue, in mutual respect and disargreement, to work towards their respective goals for the rest of their lives.

In 1902, Buber became the editor of the weekly Die Welt, the central organ of the Zionist movement. However a year later Buber became involved with the Jewish Hasidism movement. Buber admired how the the Hasidic communities actualized their religion in daily life and culture. In stark contrast to the busy Zionist organizations, which were always mulling political concerns, the Hasidim were focused on the values which Buber had long advocated for Zionism to adopt. In 1904, Buber withdrew from much of his Zionist organizational work and devoted himself to study and writing. In that year he published his thesis: Beiträge zur Geschichte des Individuationsproblems (on Jakob Böhme and Nikolaus Cusanus).

In 1906, Buber published Die Geschichten des Rabbi Nachman, a collection of the tales of the Rabbi Nachman of Breslov, a renowned Hasidic rebbe, as interpreted and retold in a Neo-Hasidic fashion by Buber. Two years later, Buber published Die Legende des Baalschem (stories of the Baal Shem Tov), the founder of Hasidism.

From 1910 to 1914, Buber studied myths and published editions of mythic texts. In 1916 he moved from Berlin to Heppenheim. During World War I he helped establish the Jewish National Commission in order to improve the condition of Eastern European Jews. During that period he became the editor of Der Jude (German for "The Jew"), a Jewish monthly (until 1924). In 1921 Buber began his close relationship with Franz Rosenzweig. In 1922 Buber and Rosenzweig co-operated in Rosenzweig's House of Jewish Learning, known in Germany as Lehrhaus.

In 1923 Buber wrote his famous essay on existence, Ich und Du (later translated into English as I and Thou). Though he edited the work later in his life, he refused to make substantial changes. In 1925 he began, in conjunction with Rosenzweig, translating the Hebrew Bible into German. He himself called this translation Verdeutschung ("Germanification"), since it does not always use literary German language but attempts to find new dynamic (often newly-invented) equivalent phrasing in order to respect the multivalent Hebrew original. Between 1926 and 1928 Buber co-edited the quarterly Die Kreatur ("The Creature").

In 1930 Buber became an honorary professor at the University of Frankfurt am Main. He resigned in protest from his professorship immediately after Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933. On October 4, 1933 the Nazi authorities forbade him to lecture. He then founded the Central Office for Jewish Adult Education, which became an increasingly important body as the German government forbade Jews to attend public education. The Nazi administration increasingly obstructed this body.

Finally, in 1938, Buber left Germany and settled in Jerusalem, Israel. He received a professorship at Hebrew University there, lecturing in anthropology and introductory sociology. He participated in the discussion of the Jews' problems in Palestine and of the Arab question — working out of his Biblical, philosophic and Hasidic work. He became a member of the group Ichud, which aimed at a bi-national state for Arabs and Jews in Palestine.

Such a binational confederation was viewed by Buber as a more proper fulfillment of Zionism than a solely Jewish state. In 1946 he published his work Paths in Utopia, in which he detailed his communitarian socialist views and his theory of the "dialogical community" founded upon interpersonal "dialogical relationships".

After World War II Buber began giving lecture-tours in Europe and the USA. In 1951 he received the Goethe award of the University of Hamburg and in 1953 the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade. In 1958 Buber's wife Paula died, and in the same year he won the Israel Prize. 1963 Buber won the Erasmus Award in Amsterdam. On 13 June, 1965 Buber died in his house in Talbiyeh,Jerusalem.

Philosophy
Buber is famous for his synthetic thesis of dialogical existence, as he described in the book I and Thou. However his work dealt with a range of issues including religious consciousness, modernity, the concept of evil, ethics, education, and Biblical hermeneutics.

Dialogue and Existence
In I and Thou, Buber introduced his thesis on human existence. Inspired partly by Feuerbach's concept of ego in The Essence of Christianity and Kierkegaard's "Single One", Buber worked upon the premise of existence as encounter.[1] He explained this philosophy using the word pairs of "I-Thou" and "I-It" to categorize the modes of consciousness, interaction, and being through which an individual engages with other individuals, inanimate objects, and all reality in general. Philosophically, these word pairs express complex ideas about modes of being - particularly how a person exists and actualizes that existence (see existentialism). As Buber argues in I and Thou, a person is at all times engaged with the world in one of these modes.

The generic motif Buber employs to describe the dual modes of being is one of dialogue (I-Thou) and monologue (I-It). The concept of communication, particularly language-oriented communication, is used both in describing dialogue/monologue through metaphors and expressing the interpersonal nature of human existence.

I-Thou
I-Thou is a relationship that stresses the mutual, holistic existence of two beings. It is a concrete encounter, because these beings meet one another in their authentic existence, without any qualification or objectification of one another. Even imagination and ideas do not play a role in this relation. In an I-Thou encounter, infinity and universality are made actual (rather than being merely concepts).

Buber stressed that an I-Thou relationship lacks any composition (e.g. structure) and communicates no content (e.g. information). Despite the fact that I-Thou cannot be proven to happen as an event (e.g. it cannot be measured), Buber stressed that it is real and perceivable. A variety of examples are used to illustrate I-Thou relationships in daily life - two lovers, an observer and a cat, the author and a tree, and two strangers on a train. Common words Buber used for I-Thou include encounter, meeting, dialogue, mutuality, and exchange.

I-It
The I-It relationship is nearly the opposite of I-Thou. Whereas in I-Thou the two beings encounter one another, in an I-It relationship the beings do not actually meet. Instead, the "I" confronts and qualifies an idea, or conceptualization, of the being in its presence and treats that being as an object. All such objects are considered merely mental representations, created and sustained by the individual mind. This is similar to Levinas’ theory of totality), in that these objects reside in the cognitive agent’s mind, existing only as thoughts. Therefore, the I-It relationship is in fact a relationship with oneself; it is not a dialogue, but a monologue.

In the I-It relationship, an individual treats other things, people, etc., as objects to be used and experienced. Essentially, this form of objectivity relates to the world in terms of the self - how an object can serve the individual’s interest.

Buber did not consider the I-It relation better than the I-Thou relation; rather, he argued that they are both natural and necessary. Human life consists of an oscillation between I-Thou and I-It. However, in diagnosing modernity, Buber believed that the expansion of a purely analytic, material view of existence was at heart an advocation of I-It relations - even between human beings. Buber argued that this devalued not only individuals, but all of existence.

Note on Translation
Ich und Du has been translated into many other languages, despite the fact that Buber made use of many idomatic German expressions. In the English-speaking world there has been debate about the correct translation of the key word pairs in English translations of the book. Specifically, in the German the word "Du" is used, while in the English two different translations are used: "Thou" (used in Ronald Smith’s version) and "You" (used by Walter Kaufmann).

The key problem is how to translate the very personal, even intimate German "Du", which has no direct corrolary in English. Smith argued that "Thou" invoked the theological and reverential implications which Buber intended (e.g. Buber describes God as the eternal "Du"). Kaufmann asserted that this wording was archaic and impersonal, offering "You" because it is commonly used for intimate and personal conversation in contemporary English usage.

Despite this debate, Buber’s book is widely known in the English-speaking world as I and Thou, perhaps because the Smith translation appeared years before the Kaufmann one. However, both the Smith and Kaufmann translations are widely available and can be considered complementary.

 
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